Tactile able to be touched, pertaining to touch
Tagma, tagmata a body segment of an arthropod resulting from the embryotic fusion of two or more segments, as in insects which have a head , thorax and abdomen
Tagmosis organisation of the arthropod body into tagamata (segments)
Taiga The coniferous or boreal forest biome, characterised by snow, harsh winters, short summers, and evergreen trees.
Tarsus/tarsi the jointed feet of some animals such as insects
Taxis A movement towards or away from some stimulus.
Taxon a taxonomic group or entity
Taxonomy The branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.
Tegmen plural = tegmina The leathery forewing of some insects, e.g. crickets and cockroaches.
Tegula a covering over the structures which articulate the wings with the thorax at the base of the wing, see the diagram of the bumblebee body
Telson Posterior projection of the last body segment in some crustaceans and horseshoe crabs
Tentacle a slender, flexible, projecting structure; can be sensory or used for food capture.
Tergum/tergite dorsal part of an arthropod body segment
Terminal the last or end of a series
Terrestrial Living wholly or mainly on the ground
Territory An area defended by an animal, or group of animals, against other animals.
Test In echinoderms, the skeleton made of calcareous plates.
Thermoregulation The maintenance of internal temperatures within a tolerable range, see Bumblebees.
Thigmotaxis the tendency to press the body against a surface or into a corner, as seen in Dermaptera - earwigs.
Thorax The middle region of an arthropod's body. It contains the powerful muscles that operate the legs and wings, see bumblebee
Tibia In insects, the part of the leg immediately above the tarsus or foot.
Tissue An integrated group of cells with a common structure and function.
Tracheae Tiny air tubes that ramify through the insect body for gas exchange.
Trilobites A group of animals that became extinct at the end of the Permian. They were marine and resembled woodlice externally.
Torpor A sleep-like state in which the body processes slow down. Animals usually become torpid to survive difficult conditions, e.g. cold or lack of food.
Torsion a process of twisting during growth, e.g. in snails
Tracheal system A system of minute tubes found in insects and arachnids used to carry oxygen into their bodies. The air enters through the spiracles (small openings found down the sides of the thorax and abdomen) and flows through the branching trachea to the cells.
Tracheoles the very fine ends of tracheal tubes
Transverse wider than long
Trivoltine having three generation a year
Trochanter the second segment from the body of an insect's leg, between the coxa and the femur
Trophallaxis The exchange of alimentary liquid among social insect colony members and their guests. In stomodeal trophallaxis the material originates from the mouth; in proctodeal trophallaxis the material originates from the anus.
Trophic structure The different feeding levels of an ecosystem which determines the route of energy flow and the pattern of chemical cycling.
Tropical rain forest The most complex of all communities located near the equator where rainfall is abundant. It has many more species of plants and animals than any other ecosystem.
Truncate cut off or blunt
Tube foot a hydraulic organ protruding from the bodies of most echinoderms
Tubercle A hard swelling on an animal's body.
Tundra A biome at the northernmost limit of plant growth and at high altitudes, where plant forms are limited to low, shrubby or mat-like vegetation.
Tunic in tunicates a cuticular, cellulose-containing covering of the body
Tymbal organ Drum-like organs on either side of a cicada's abdomen that vibrate to produce sound.
Tympanum an auditory organ consisting of a vibration-sensitive membrane on the abdomen or forelegs of grasshoppers and some moths
Univoltine having a single generation a year
Uric acid The insoluble precipitate of nitrogenous waste excreted by land snails, insects, birds and some reptiles.
Uropod Posterior appendage of many crustaceans
Valve one of the two shells of a bivalve mollusc or a brachiopod
Variation Differences among individuals in a species that have nothing to do with age, sex, or position.
Vascular containing blood vessels
Vector An agent that carries and transmits a pathenogenic microorganism from one animal to another, e.g. fleas transmit the plague bacterium, Pasturalla pestis to rats and man.
Veins Vessels that return blood to the heart.
Ventral On or near the underside
Vermiform worm-like
Venation the patterns of veins in an insect's wing
Vestigial Relating to an organ that has atrophied or is non-functioning, e.g. vestigial wings of some insects.
Viviparous producing live young rather than eggs
Voltinism the number of generations per year
Waggle dance The dance whereby workers of various species of honey bee communicate the location of food and new nest sites. The basic dance is a figure of 8 pattern with the middle part of the 8 containing the information about the direction and distance of the target.
Warning colouration A combination of contrasting colours that warns that an animal is dangerous, e.g. black/yellow of insects.
Water vascular system In echinoderms, a system of fluid-filled tubes and chambers that connects with the tube-feet. The fluid in the water vascular system is under pressure, giving the tube-feet their shape.
Wing case the hardened first pair of wings of some beetles and bugs
Worker The infertile member of a colony of social insects, e.g. bumblebees