North American cuckoo bumblebees

6 common species
Bombus terrestris/lucorum
Bombus lapidarius
Bombus pratorum
Bombus pascuorum
Bombus hortorum
Less common species
Cuckoo bumblebees
North American species
Bombus impatiens
N. American cuckoos
Is it a bumblebee?
Other bees1, 2
Looks like a bumblebee

The bumblebee body can be divided into three main parts to make identification easy. These are:

  • The head, which can be quite difficult to see on a foraging bee as it is deep in the flower.
  • The thorax which has the wings and legs attached. It is really just a box of muscles. The biggest being the flight muscles.
  • The abdomen which has the honey stomach for storing nectar, the sting, the wax glands and all the digestive and reproductive organs.
  • For more details on bumblebee anatomy click on BODY above left or here.

A cuckoo bumblebee, like the bird it is named after, lays its eggs in another bumblebee’s nest and leaves the workers of that nest to rear the young. Of course the eggs she lays are either females or males (there are no queens), and the cuckoo females emerge from hibernation in late spring or early summer, much later than ordinary bumblebee queens. So by the time the cuckoo females have emerged the bumblebee queens will have already established their nests.

The cuckoo differs physically from ordinary queen bumblebee in that she has no pollen basket on her rear legs, does not exude wax from between her abdominal segments, is slightly less hairy than ordinary bumblebees, and all species have shortish tongues. Cuckoos have a much harder exoskeleton than normal bumblebees, and because no wax is exuded there are no weak points between the abdominal segments, so if there is a fight between a cuckoo and another worker or queen it is almost impossible for the queen or worker to force her sting into the cuckoo body. They also tend to have a more pointed abdomen, and because they are less hairy the tip of the abdomen is often visible. Apart from that cuckoo bumblebees usually have the same pattern of hair colour as the bumblebees' nests they lay in.


It is thought that the cuckoo females locate an established nest by smell. She may go right in and sting the existing queen to death then lay eggs, or she may sneak in the nest and hide for a few days until she smells the same as the nest, then lay her eggs. Whatever method she uses it spells the beginning of the end for the nest because the cuckoo larva consume resources but contribute nothing to the nest.

It has been decided to rename the genus of cuckoo bumblebees from Psithyrus to Bombus.

Bombus fernaldae
Bombus fernaldae a cuckoo bumblebee found in North America
Notes: Also known as Bombus flavidus
: Alaska and Canada south to North Carolina, Tennessee, Colorado, California
Bombus variabilis
Bombus variabalis a cuckoo bumblebee found in North America
Range: Ohio south to Florida, west to North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Tennessee, New Mexico, Mexico.
Bombus insularis
Bombus insularis a cuckoo bumblebee found in North America
Range: Canada south to California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nebraska, New York, Alaska.
Bombus crawfordii
Bombus crawfordii a cuckoo bumblebee found in North America
Bombus suckleyi
Bombus suckleyi a cuckoo bumblebee found in North America
Range: Alaska south to California, Utah, Colorado.